Will and Shall
1) we use it for predictions – It will be cold tomorrow
2) to say what we think is the most likely – The phone is ringing. That will be Harry
3) we use it for predictable situation – He’ll look better without that beard (=I think that he’s going to shave it off)
4) we use it for predictions based on past experience or knowledge – There will be delays because of bad weather
5) we use shall with I or we in questions when we make offers and suggestions – Shall I close the door? Let’s try again, shall we?
6) we use will or shall to express determination – I shall finish this if it kills me
7) we use it to say we are definitely willing now and for instant decision – I will give you one more chance. I’ll order this.
8) we use won’t to say that person isn’t willing to do smth — He is ill, but he won’t go to the doctor’s
9) we use it to talk about things as if they were people who aren’t willing to do smth – The door isn’t locked, but it won’t open
9) we use it to describe present habits or typical behavior – Her children will break everything they touch.
1) we use it for hypothetical situation – He would look better without that beard (=I don’t think that he’s going to shave it off)
2) we use it with perfect for a prediction about an imaginary past event or situation – Life in the Middle Ages was harsh and cruel. You would have hated it.
3) we use it for willingness in the future or in conditional sentences. – Most people would pay more for better health care. I would stay no longer if they asked me to.
4) we use wouldn’t to say that person wasn’t willing to do smth – She had a lot of money, but she wouldn’t lend us any
5) we use it to talk about things as if they were people who weren’t willing to do smth – My car wouldn’t start this morning.
6) we use it for habitual actions in the past (especially when the time reference is clear) –
a) I would try to stay awake every Xmas to see Santa.
b) Whenever we went to my uncle’s house, we would play in the garden.
7) we use it with verbs expressing preferences (like, love, prefer) especially in offers. – I would prefer an early class. Would you like some tea?
8) we use it after the verb wish when we are talking about preferred actions – I wish she wouldn’t smoke.
9) we don’t use it to describe states – I wish I had a car.
10) We use would in the past to criticize people’s characteristic behavior or habits.
a) I was happy when Sam left. He would talk about people behind their backs.
1) we use it to talk about general ability – Ostriches can run very fast. Can you swim?
2) we use it for mental processes and senses – I can smell onions. Other verbs include: believe. Understand, feel, guess, taste
3) we use it for permission choosing could to be polite – Can I borrow your dictionary? I’m sorry, but you can’t
4) we use it to talk about rules and laws – Only buses and taxis can park here.
5) we use it to say that a situation is possible – Some dogs can be very dangerous
6) we use it to make suggestions about possible actions – We can wait here for a bus or we can start walking.
7) we use it to ask people to do things – Can you show me where it is?
8) we use it for the present to say when we mean that situation is not possible – This story can’t be true
9)we use it as the opposite of must in negative deductions — you can’t be 21!
1) we use it to talk about general ability in the past – Their sun could swim before he could walk
2) we use it for mental processes and senses in the past – We could hear a cat but we couldn’t see it.
3) we use it to talk about an ability or opportunity not used – He could have done very well but he was lazy
4) we use it in general statements to say that a situation was possible – your bag could be in a car. It could rain this week.
5) we use it as a polite form to ask people to do smth and to ask for permission – Could you take this away? Could I use your laptop?
6) we use it to say when we mean that a situation was not possible – I knew the rumor about your accident couldn’t be true.
1) We use may in formal situations when we ask for or give permission, we use may in academic language
a) May we come in? — Yes, you may
b) The seeds from the plant may grow up to 20 centimeters in length.
2) we use may or might to say that smth is possible now or later – Taking these pills may/might cause drowsiness.
3) we use it to use that a possible situation is common or usual – Peppers may be green, yellow and red.
4) we use might in descriptions of what was possible in the past – In those days people might spent their entire life in the village.
5) we use might to speech after verbs in the past tense – He said he might be late.
6) we use may so say that a specific event is possible, and before modals, the continuous and perfect – Ann may arrive later. It may be going to rain
7) we prefer might to express irritation at someone’s not having done smth – You might have posted my letter when you went out to post yours.
8) we use may or might when we make a concession before a clause with but – She may be seventy, but she still likes to dance. (=Although she is seventy….)
9) we use may not/might not when we mean “possible not” – This bill may/might not be right. It seems to high.
10) We prefer might to say what we will possibly do in the future
a) I Might paint the kitchen purple.