Special use

1) In the night = during a specific night; at night = during any night.

2) We usually use during when we are talking about the whole period of time

a) We need fewer workers during long weekends.

b) There were no classes during the whole of May.

3) We usually use in when smth happens at some point within a specific period of time.

a) We’ll be on holiday during/in July.

b) The old road is sometimes closed during/in winter.

4) We use during to say when smth happens and for to say how long smth lasts.

5) We use before very generally for smth happening earlier thana certain time

a) Didn’t Rob say he would be here by six?

6) We use by more precisely when we mean ‘at/on or before’ a specific time.

a) I think he said he hoped to be here by six.

7) We use until for a period of time up to a specific point in time.

a) I guess we should wait for him until 6:15

8) Since before  = from a point in time earlier than.

a) They’ve lived here since before.

9) Until after = up to a point in time later than

a) Don’t say ‘Happy New Year’ until after midnight.

10) We use above and over to say that one thing is in higher position than another.

a) There’s a full moon above/over the mountain.

b) He has a small scar above/over his left eye.

11) We use above when one thing is at higher level or position on a scale than another.

a) It’s always colder above the snowline.

b) Her name is above mine on the waiting list.

12) We use over when one thing covers another in some way.

a) There are thick clouds over most of Scotland.

b) I had to wear a scarf over my head.

13) Above can be used with the sense of ‘better than’.

a) His work is above average.

14) Over can be used with the sense of ‘more than’.

a) Are you over 21?

15) We use below and under to say that one thing is in lower position than another.

16) We use below when one thing is at a lower level or point on a scale than another

a) Most of new Orleans is below sea level.

b) I’m sure the temperature is below zero tonight.

17) We use under when one thing is covered by another in some way.

a) The puppy likes to hide under the sofa.

With and by

1) We can use with plus a determiner and noun for the specific thing used to perform an action.

a) I paid with my credit card.

b) The thief broke the lock with a knife.

2) We usually use by plus a noun without determiner when we want to describe the action in more general way.

a) I paid by credit card.

b) he opened the door by breaking the lock.

Except for

1) We use except for with information added to a specific statement that makes it not completely true.

a) She says she has dropped smoking except for an occasional cigarette at a party.